Antihistamines Preparations for Pollinosis
Antihistamines are important drugs in the treatment of allergies, including pollinosis about which we talked today.
Antihistamine drugs of the first generation
The main representatives are: Dimedrol, Diazolin, Suprastin, Pipolphen, Tavegyl and others. Because of the severity of side effects, the fact that the “risk-benefit” ratio tends towards the first, these drugs are NOT the drugs of choice for the first line in either children or adults in the treatment of allergic diseases.
This is stated in all conciliatory international documents.
What are the Disadvantages of Antihistamines of the First Generation?
- Short-term action;
- A hematoencephalic barrier is involved;
- More than 80% of H1 receptors in the brain are blocked. It happens because of a pronounced sedative effect, which increases under the influence of alcohol and antidepressants;
- Increases appetite risk of weight gain;
- Fatigue or agitation, sleep disturbances;
- Violation of coordination of movements, impaired concentration;
- Reduced blood pressure and increased heart rate;
- Dry mouth;
- Stomach ache, vomiting, constipation;
- Visual impairment;
- Violation of urination;
The reception of antihistamine of the 1 generation should be limited, and not used universally because of the wide range of unwanted effects!!!
So, there are Antihistamines of the 2 generations: Loratadine (Claritin), Desloratadine (Erius), Cetirizine (Zirtek, Zodak), Ebastine (Kestin), Ketotifen and others. Fenistil is a preparation of the first generation. According to the mechanism of action, it is closest to Antihistamines of the 2nd generation and differs from the first by a much less pronounced sedative and muscarinic effect, high antiallergic activity and duration of action.
Advantages of Antihistamines of the 2 generation:
- Quick start of action;
- High familiarity with H1-histamine receptors;
- Duration of action (12-24 hours);
- Do not block other receptors;
- Lack of sedation;
- An absence of dependence on time of food intake;
- Low risk of addiction in the case of a long-lasting application;
- A possibility of combination with antidepressants;
- An absence of influence on the cardiovascular system, urogenital organs, stomach, intestines, vision, mucous membranes;
- Do not cause bronchospasm (individual intolerance is possible);
- Antihistamines are not included in the standards for the treatment of bronchial asthma, but can be considered as adjunctive therapy when there is an allergic rhinitis;
- Children should not take antihistamines allowed for the elderly, simply breaking off a piece.
Antihistamines do not stop bronchospasm.